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Critical Appraisal Example Essays


Part A:

Critical Appraisal Essay

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation which mayimpair health. World Health Organization (WHO) states overweight and obesity as the fifth leadingrisk for global deaths. The fundamental causation is an energy imbalance between caloriesconsumption and expenditure. Overweight and obesity are preventable in presence of supportiveenvironments and communities, choosing healthier diets and regular physical activity. Withslimming and fitness centres mushrooming in town, I choose this theme in vain to curb obesity inMalaysia, (i.e. Weight-management service in community pharmacy) ranking 6


in Asia (2010).These approaches up-live the role of pharmacist towards community health care, acknowledging thegeneral view of acceptance. Search strategy used by accessing La Trobe¶s Library W (A-Z)Databases in search for Wiley Online Library and then typed in my keywords using the advancesearch option. Keywords are community pharmacy; weight-lost; weight-management. A total of 251results were obtained and is further filtered to 187 journals applicable. Sort for best match and daterespectively, selection made in accordance of my study:-1.

Community pharmacy contribution to weight-management: identifying opportunities;2.

The provision of current and future Healthy Weight Management (HWM) services fromcommunity pharmacies: a survey of community pharmacists¶ attitudes, practice andfuture possibilities.The first study conducted to determine the view and preference of the general public towardsweight-management services, along with participation of community pharmacies offering or would provide weight-management service; causative study. A pilot study is conducted in conclusion of thedesigned questionnaire construct µconfidence¶ in this context and understanding by respondents. Theauthor do points the outcome of results obtained, such as lacking of public awareness andgovernment initiatives. Method used (face-to-face questionnaires) is appropriate, enablingresearchers to observe and evaluate participants during study such as usage of 5-point Likert-typescale. However, even if respondents were to give the same answer, their interpretation may varyaccordingly. Hence, unstructured interview is superior in this respect in gaining completeinformation but intensify coding and analysis challenges. Face-to-face questionnaire enable rapiddata collection and purposive targeting of respondents with demographic characteristics accordingly.Enhancement of a full-spectrum study of a population is in advantage comparatively with postalsurveys. Appearance and demeanor of the interviewer may affect the responses of participant, presenting experimental bias and demand characteristic problem thus, trained and skilledinterviewers to combat this problem. The study setting accounts for not to set-up nearby pharmacies,twice visits at different times of day would minimise pharmacy users respondents and maximisechances of a variety participants. However in field research, researchers have lesser control over study sample depending on whom is presenting then.The purpose of second study was to derive baseline data of current weight-managementservices, attitude of pharmacists¶ towards the provision of current and future HWM services;causative study. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted, permits useful development data in arelatively short period of time. However, generation effect may be influential towards confoundingthreatening the internal validity (i.e. age of pharmacists). A pilot study was conducted on three

Critical reviews, both short (one page) and long (four pages), usually have a similar structure. Check your assignment instructions for formatting and structural specifications. Headings are usually optional for longer reviews and can be helpful for the reader.

Summarising and paraphrasing are essential skills for academic writing and in particular, the critical review. To summarise means to reduce a text to its main points and its most important ideas. The length of your summary for a critical review should only be about one quarter to one third of the whole critical review.

The best way to summarise is to:

  1. Scan the text. Look for information that can be deduced from the introduction, conclusion and the title and headings. What do these tell you about the main points of the article?
  2. Locate the topic sentences and highlight the main points as you read.
  3. Reread the text and make separate notes of the main points. Examples and evidence do not need to be included at this stage. Usually they are used selectively in your critique.

Paraphrasing means putting it into your own words. Paraphrasing offers an alternative to using direct quotations in your summary (and the critique) and can be an efficient way to integrate your summary notes.

The best way to paraphrase is to:

  1. Review your summary notes
  2. Rewrite them in your own words and in complete sentences
  3. Use reporting verbs and phrases (eg; The author describes…, Smith argues that …).
  4. If you include unique or specialist phrases from the text, use quotation marks.

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