Guidelines Good Persuasive Essay
Writing assignment series
Persuasive or argumentative essays
In persuasive or argumentative writing, we try to convince others
to agree with our facts, share our values,
accept our argument and conclusions,
and adopt our way of thinking.
Elements toward building a good persuasive essay include
- establishing facts
to support an argument
- clarifying relevant values
for your audience (perspective)
- prioritizing, editing, and/or sequencing
the facts and values in importance to build the argument
- forming and stating conclusions
- "persuading" your audience that your conclusions
are based upon the agreed-upon facts and shared values
- having the confidence
to communicate your "persuasion" in writing
Here are some strategies to complete a persuasive writing assignment:
Write out the questions in your own words.
Think of the questions posed in the assignment
while you are reading and researching. Determine
- any sources that will help you determine their reliability
(as well as for further reference)
- what prejudices lie in the argument
or values that color the facts or the issue
- what you think of the author's argument
List out facts; consider their importance:
prioritize, edit, sequence, discard, etc.
Ask yourself "What's missing?"
What are the "hot buttons" of the issue?
List possible emotions/emotional reactions and recognize them for later use
Start writing a draft!(refer to: Writing essays, the basics)
Start as close as possible to your reading/research
Do not concern yourself with grammar or spelling
- Write your first paragraph
- Introduce the topic
- Inform the reader of your point of view!
- Entice the reader to continue with the rest of the paper!
- Focus on three main points to develop
- Establish flow from paragraph to paragraph
- Keep your voice active
- Quote sources
to establish authority
- Stay focused
on your point of view throughout the essay
- Focus on logical arguments
- Don't lapse into summary
in the development--wait for the conclusion
Summarize, then conclude, your argument
Refer to the first paragraph/opening statement as well as the main points
- does the conclusion restate the main ideas?
- reflect the succession and importance of the arguments
- logically conclude their development?
- Edit/rewrite the first paragraph
to better telegraph your development and conclusion.
- Take a day or two off!
- Re-read your paper
with a fresh mind and a sharp pencil
- Ask yourself:
Does this make sense? Am I convinced?
Will this convince a reader?
Will they understand my values, and agree with my facts?
- Edit, correct, and re-write as necessary
- Check spelling and grammar!
- Have a friend read it and respond to your argument.
Were they convinced?
- Revise if necessary
- Turn in the paper
- Celebrate a job well done,
with the confidence that you have done your best.
- Ask yourself:
How to respond to criticism:
Consider criticism as a test of developing your powers of persuasion.
Try not to take it personally.
If your facts are criticized,
double check them, and then cite your sources.
If your values are criticized,
sometimes we need agree "to disagree". Remember: your success in persuading others assumes that the other person is open to being persuaded!
Fear: If you are not used to communicating,
especially in writing, you may need to overcome fear on several levels. Writing, unlike unrecorded speech, is a permanent record for all to see, and the "context" is not as important as in speech where context "colors" the words. For example: your readers do not see you, only your words. They do not know what you look like, where you live, who you are.
Hopefully in school, and class, we have a safe place
to practice both the art of writing and of persuasion. Then later, when we are in our communities, whether work, church, neighborhoods, and even families, we can benefit from this practice.
Persuasion also has another dimension:
it is built with facts, which illustrate conclusions. Of course, this means you need to know what you are talking about, and cannot be lazy with your facts, or you will not succeed in convincing anyone. This shows another level of fear: Fear of making a mistake that will make your argument or persuasion meaningless. Since you are writing, and the words are on paper for all to see (or on a web site!), you need to work to make sure your facts are in order.
Writing for the "Web" | The five-paragraph essay | Essays for a literature class |Thanks to the inspiration of S Ryder, and her sixth grade class in Pennsylvania, for revision of this Guide
Expository essays | Persuasive essays | Position papers | Open book exams |
Essay Exams | White papers | Lab reports/scientific papers |
Research proposals | Elements of a Research Paper
Seven stages of writing assignments | "Lessons learned" | Deadlines
Generally speaking there are six elements of an argumentative essay. G.K. Chesterton said that history “is a confused heap of facts.” Demonstrate otherwise. Take the “heap of facts” presented in class & the assigned reading and pour it into these six parts (though not necessarily just six paragraphs because that number will vary):
>INTRODUCTION. Announces the general topic; includes a “hook” or way of drawing the reader’s attention; clear statement of your thesis announcing your position in a debate.
>CONTEXT: Significance. Remember that the outside-this-class-reader requires context.
>PRO: Key claims (positive evidence). Best evidence in your favor.
>CON: Counter claim (negative evidence). Meeting the opposition.
>JUDGMENT. Make the case why someone else should judge things as you do–why your value judgment is preferable.
>CONCLUSION. Restate thesis statement, summarize main ideas presented; closing comment.
GRADING CRITERIA for the argumentative/persuasive essay are:
Form / Style:
__Introduction. Paragraph that introduces the topic, and a clear specific thesis statement taking a position.
__Organization. Paragraph structures–not too long or too short; internal logic of case from point to point.
__Conclusion. Shows ability to “pull together” the body of the essay, and finishes with a new twist to the thesis.
__English mechanics. Appropriate word choice, spelling, sentence fragments, grammar, punctuation; no slang.
__Sources clearly identified. Makes it clear to reader what key source(s) is being used; mention source.
Content / Substance:
__Pro Evidence/Claim. Use and comprehension of the main points that backup your thesis; not just asserting.
__Con Evidence/Counter-claim. Challenges the opposition to your argument beyond name-calling.
__Context. Shows ability to explain, and grab the attention of, a college level audience with no outside knowledge.
__Supplemental reading. Student demonstrates points from assigned reading beyond class points.
__“Responsible Judge.” Clear basis of judgment; makes the case for why one basis is preferable to the other(s).
WHY THE EMPHASIS ON WRITING? Writing is the mirror of the mind. When you want to see what you look like, you look in the mirror. But where do you look to see what is in your mind? A reflection of what is in your mind, visible to yourself and others, is what you write. If your writing is clear, then it shows that your thinking is clear; the converse is also true as unclear writing reveals unclear thinking. Writing is the means of clarifying and refining our thinking. The mere process of writing out our thoughts compels us to have to clarify and structure our thinking.