Obesity Case Study Ppt
Presentation on theme: "Obesity Case Study. What is your history with weight gain and weight loss? Would you like to manage your weight differently? If so, how? What do you think."— Presentation transcript:
1 Obesity Case Study
2 What is your history with weight gain and weight loss? Would you like to manage your weight differently? If so, how? What do you think contributes to your weight? What sort of barriers do you feel impede your weight loss efforts? When assessing patients with obesity, you should ask the following questions.
3 When assessing patients with obesity, you should ask the following questions. What does food mean to you? How do you use food (e.g., to relieve stress, provide comfort)? Are other family members overweight? Are there any environmental or genetic factors influencing the weight gain? How has your health been affected by your body weight?
7 The overall goals are that the obese patient will (1) modify eating patterns (2) participate in a regular physical activity program (3) achieve weight loss to a specified level (4) maintain weight loss at a specified level (5) minimize or prevent health problems related to obesity. Planning for an Obese Patient
8 Before selecting a weight loss strategy with the patient, you should discuss the following questions: What is the patient's motivation for losing weight? Are there any major stresses that will make it difficult to focus on weight control? Does the patient have any psychiatric illnesses, such as severe depression, substance abuse, or a binge eating disorder, that will derail weight loss efforts? How much time can the patient devote to exercise on a daily or weekly basis?
9 Before selecting a weight loss strategy with the patient, you should discuss the following questions: What financial considerations must be factored into the patient's choices? What type of support does the patient have from family and or friends for losing weight? Assess motivation because it is essential for a favorable outcome. Lack of motivation is a huge barrier to change. However, focus on the reasons for wanting to lose weight as the patient faces the challenges in dealing with obesity.
10 Bariatric surgery is a surgical procedure that is used to treat obesity. Bariatric surgery is currently the only treatment that has been found to have a successful and lasting impact for sustained weight loss for severely obese individuals. The majority of people who undergo bariatric surgery successfully improve their overall quality of life. A great deal of excess weight is lost, and patients experience resolution of co- morbidities and improve their appearance, social opportunities, and economic opportunities. 26,27 Criteria guidelines for bariatric surgery include having a BMI ≥40 kg/m 2 or BMI > 35 kg/m 2 with one or more severe obesity related medical complications (e.g. hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart failure, or sleep apnea) Bariatric Surgery
Roundtable on Obesity Solutions, Food and Nutrition Board, Health and Medicine Division, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Obesity in the Early Childhood Years: State of the Science and Implementation of Promising Solutions: Workshop Summary. 2016 May 23. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK368372/.
Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012 Feb 1. 307(5):491-7. [Medline].
Wijga AH, Scholtens S, Bemelmans WJ, de Jongste JC, Kerkhof M, Schipper M, et al. Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort. BMC Public Health. 2010 Apr 9. 10:184. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Li C, Ford ES, Zhao G, Croft JB, Balluz LS, Mokdad AH. Prevalence of self-reported clinically diagnosed sleep apnea according to obesity status in men and women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. Prev Med. 2010 Jul. 51(1):18-23. [Medline].
Jiao L, Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Pfeiffer RM, Park Y, Freedman DM, et al. Body mass index, effect modifiers, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled study of seven prospective cohorts. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Aug. 21(8):1305-14. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Kyrgiou M, Kalliala I, Markozannes G, et al. Adiposity and cancer at major anatomical sites: umbrella review of the literature. BMJ. 2017 Feb 28. 356:j477. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Mulcahy N. 'Strong evidence': obesity tied to 11 cancers. Medscape Medical News. 2017 Feb 28. [Full Text].
Oreopoulos A, Padwal R, McAlister FA, Ezekowitz J, Sharma AM, Kalantar-Zadeh K, et al. Association between obesity and health-related quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010 Sep. 34(9):1434-41. [Medline].
Galtier-Dereure F, Boegner C, Bringer J. Obesity and pregnancy: complications and cost. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May. 71(5 Suppl):1242S-8S. [Medline].
Wadden TA, Webb VL, Moran CH, Bailer BA. Lifestyle modification for obesity: new developments in diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy. Circulation. 2012 Mar 6. 125(9):1157-70. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Cawley J, Meyerhoefer C. The medical care costs of obesity: an instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ. 2012 Jan. 31(1):219-30. [Medline].
Finkelstein EA, DiBonaventura Md, Burgess SM, Hale BC. The costs of obesity in the workplace. J Occup Environ Med. 2010 Oct. 52(10):971-6. [Medline].
Weight Loss Markets for Products and Services. BCC Research. Available at http://www.bccresearch.com/report/weight-loss-markets-products-services-fod027c.html. Accessed: April 23, 2012.
McCall B. Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease: A New Name for Obesity?. Medscape Medical News. 2016 Dec 29. [Full Text].
Gallagher D, Heymsfield SB, Heo M, Jebb SA, Murgatroyd PR, Sakamoto Y. Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Sep. 72(3):694-701. [Medline].
Ward LC. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis: an update. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2012 Sep. 15(5):424-9. [Medline].
Shiwaku K, Anuurad E, Enkhmaa B, Kitajima K, Yamane Y. Appropriate BMI for Asian populations. Lancet. 2004 Mar 27. 363(9414):1077. [Medline].
Grundy SM, Brewer HB Jr, Cleeman JI, Smith SC Jr, Lenfant C. Definition of metabolic syndrome: Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation. 2004 Jan 27. 109(3):433-8. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Tan CE, Ma S, Wai D, Chew SK, Tai ES. Can we apply the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel definition of the metabolic syndrome to Asians?. Diabetes Care. 2004 May. 27(5):1182-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Tirosh A, Shai I, Afek A, Dubnov-Raz G, Ayalon N, Gordon B, et al. Adolescent BMI trajectory and risk of diabetes versus coronary disease. N Engl J Med. 2011 Apr 7. 364(14):1315-25. [Medline].
Montonen J, Boeing H, Schleicher E, Fritsche A, Pischon T. Association of changes in body mass index during earlier adulthood and later adulthood with circulating obesity biomarker concentrations in middle-aged men and women. Diabetologia. 2011 Jul. 54(7):1676-83. [Medline].
Sugerman HJ, Kellum JM, Engle KM, Wolfe L, Starkey JV, Birkenhauer R, et al. Gastric bypass for treating severe obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Feb. 55(2 Suppl):560S-566S. [Medline].
Sugerman HJ. Effects of increased intra-abdominal pressure in severe obesity. Surg Clin North Am. 2001 Oct. 81(5):1063-75, vi. [Medline].
Yao R, Ananth CV, Park BY, Pereira L, Plante LA, for the Perinatal Research Consortium. Obesity and the risk of stillbirth: a population-based cohort study [abstract]. Presented at: The 2014 SMFM Annual Meeting; February 3-8, 2014; New Orleans, LA. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014. 210:[Full Text].
Hackethal V. Obese women may have 25% increased risk for stillbirth. Medscape Medical News. March 27, 2014. [Full Text].
Abdullah A, Amin FA, Hanum F, et al. Estimating the risk of type-2 diabetes using obese-years in a contemporary population of the Framingham Study. Glob Health Action. 2016. 9:30421. [Medline].
Losina E, Walensky RP, Reichmann WM, Holt HL, Gerlovin H, Solomon DH, et al. Impact of obesity and knee osteoarthritis on morbidity and mortality in older Americans. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Feb 15. 154(4):217-26. [Medline].
Adelman RD, Restaino IG, Alon US, Blowey DL. Proteinuria and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in severely obese adolescents. J Pediatr. 2001 Apr. 138(4):481-5. [Medline].
Kasiske BL, Napier J. Glomerular sclerosis in patients with massive obesity. Am J Nephrol. 1985. 5(1):45-50. [Medline].
Jennette JC, Charles L, Grubb W. Glomerulomegaly and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with obesity and sleep-apnea syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 1987 Dec. 10(6):470-2. [Medline].
Hairston KG, Bryer-Ash M, Norris JM, Haffner S, Bowden DW, Wagenknecht LE. Sleep duration and five-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS family study. Sleep. 2010 Mar. 33(3):289-95. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Spiegel K, Tasali E, Penev P, Van Cauter E. Brief communication: Sleep curtailment in healthy young men is associated with decreased leptin levels, elevated ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite. Ann Intern Med. 2004 Dec 7. 141(11):846-50. [Medline].
Martinelli CE, Keogh JM, Greenfield JR, Henning E, van der Klaauw AA, Blackwood A, et al. Obesity due to melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) deficiency is associated with increased linear growth and final height, fasting hyperinsulinemia, and incompletely suppressed growth hormone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan. 96(1):E181-8. [Medline].
Hamdy O. The role of adipose tissue as an endocrine gland. Curr Diab Rep. 2005 Oct. 5(5):317-9. [Medline].
Bays H, Blonde L, Rosenson R. Adiposopathy: how do diet, exercise and weight loss drug therapies improve metabolic disease in overweight patients?. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2006 Nov. 4(6):871-95. [Medline].
Ketterer C, Heni M, Thamer C, Herzberg-Schäfer SA, Häring HU, Fritsche A. Acute, short-term hyperinsulinemia increases olfactory threshold in healthy subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug. 35(8):1135-8. [Medline].
Lieb W, Sullivan LM, Harris TB, Roubenoff R, Benjamin EJ, Levy D, et al. Plasma leptin levels and incidence of heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and total mortality in elderly individuals. Diabetes Care. 2009 Apr. 32(4):612-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Birketvedt GS, Florholmen J, Sundsfjord J, Osterud B, Dinges D, Bilker W, et al. Behavioral and neuroendocrine characteristics of the night-eating syndrome. JAMA. 1999 Aug 18. 282(7):657-63. [Medline].
Murray PG, Read A, Banerjee I, Whatmore AJ, Pritchard LE, Davies RA, et al. Reduced appetite and body mass index with delayed puberty in a mother and son: association with a rare novel sequence variant in the leptin gene. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Apr. 164(4):521-7. [Medline].
Physical Activity: Facts about Physical Activity. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/data/facts.html. Accessed: January 9, 2013.
Maripuu M, Wikgren M, Karling P, Adolfsson R, Norrback KF. Relative hypocortisolism is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in recurrent affective disorders. J Affect Disord. 2016 Jun 21. 204:187-196. [Medline].
Bouchard C, Tremblay A, Després JP, Nadeau A, Lupien PJ, Thériault G, et al. The response to long-term overfeeding in identical twins. N Engl J Med. 1990 May 24. 322(21):1477-82. [Medline].
Freeman E, Fletcher R, Collins CE, et al. Preventing and treating childhood obesity: time to target fathers. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Jan. 36(1):12-5. [Medline].
Chambers JC, Elliott P, Zabaneh D, Zhang W, Li Y, Froguel P, et al. Common genetic variation near MC4R is associated with waist circumference and insulin resistance. Nat Genet. 2008 Jun. 40(6):716-8. [Medline].
Frayling TM, Ong K. Piecing together the FTO jigsaw. Genome Biol. 2011. 12(2):104. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Loos RJ, Lindgren CM, Li S, Wheeler E, Zhao JH, Prokopenko I, et al. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity. Nat Genet. 2008 Jun. 40(6):768-75. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Scuteri A, Sanna S, Chen WM, Uda M, Albai G, Strait J, et al. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits. PLoS Genet. 2007 Jul. 3(7):e115. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Day FR, Loos RJ. Developments in obesity genetics in the era of genome-wide association studies. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2011. 4(4):222-38. [Medline].
Reinehr T, Kleber M, de Sousa G, et al. Leptin concentrations are a predictor of overweight reduction in a lifestyle intervention. Int J Pediatr Obes. May 13 2009;1-9:[Medline].
Cummings DE, Schwartz MW. Melanocortins and body weight: a tale of two receptors. Nat Genet. 2000 Sep. 26(1):8-9. [Medline].
Vaisse C, Clement K, Durand E, Hercberg S, Guy-Grand B, Froguel P. Melanocortin-4 receptor mutations are a frequent and heterogeneous cause of morbid obesity. J Clin Invest. 2000 Jul. 106(2):253-62. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Wardlaw SL. Clinical review 127: Obesity as a neuroendocrine disease: lessons to be learned from proopiomelanocortin and melanocortin receptor mutations in mice and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Apr. 86(4):1442-6. [Medline].
Gibson WT, Farooqi IS, Moreau M, DePaoli AM, Lawrence E, O'Rahilly S, et al. Congenital leptin deficiency due to homozygosity for the Delta133G mutation: report of another case and evaluation of response to four years of leptin therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Oct. 89(10):4821-6. [Medline].
Abbasi A, Corpeleijn E, Postmus D, Gansevoort RT, de Jong PE, Gans RO, et al. Plasma procalcitonin is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Sep. 95(9):E26-31. [Medline].
Yaemsiri S, Slining MM, Agarwal SK. Perceived weight status, overweight diagnosis, and weight control among US adults: the NHANES 2003-2008 Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug. 35(8):1063-70. [Medline].
Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012 Feb 1. 307(5):483-90. [Medline].
Laidman J. Obesity's Toll: 1 in 5 Deaths Linked to Excess Weight. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/809516. Accessed: August 21, 2013.
Masters RK, Reither EN, Powers DA, Yang YC, Burger AE, Link BG. The Impact of Obesity on US Mortality Levels: The Importance of Age and Cohort Factors in Population Estimates. Am J Public Health. 2013 Aug 15.
Ludwig J, Sanbonmatsu L, Gennetian L, et al. Neighborhoods, obesity, and diabetes--a randomized social experiment. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 20. 365(16):1509-19. [Medline].
Molarius A, Seidell JC, Sans S, Tuomilehto J, Kuulasmaa K. Varying sensitivity of waist action levels to identify subjects with overweight or obesity in 19 populations of the WHO MONICA Project. J Clin Epidemiol. 1999 Dec. 52(12):1213-24. [Medline].
Molarius A, Seidell JC, Sans S, Tuomilehto J, Kuulasmaa K. Waist and hip circumferences, and waist-hip ratio in 19 populations of the WHO MONICA Project. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999 Feb. 23(2):116-25. [Medline].
Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants. Lancet. 2011 Feb 12. 377(9765):557-67. [Medline].
Neel JV. The "thrifty genotype" in 1998. Nutr Rev. 1999 May. 57(5 Pt 2):S2-9. [Medline].
Metcalf BS, Hosking J, Frémeaux AE, Jeffery AN, Voss LD, Wilkin TJ. BMI was right all along: taller children really are fatter (implications of making childhood BMI independent of height) EarlyBird 48. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Apr. 35(4):541-7. [Medline].
The NS, Suchindran C, North KE, Popkin BM, Gordon-Larsen P. Association of adolescent obesity with risk of severe obesity in adulthood. JAMA. 2010 Nov 10. 304(18):2042-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Manson JE, Stevens J, VanItallie TB. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA. 1999 Oct 27. 282(16):1530-8. [Medline].
[Guideline] Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight Adults. Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults: executive summary. Expert Panel on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight in Adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Oct. 68(4):899-917. [Medline].
Bray GA. Health hazards of obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Dec. 25(4):907-19. [Medline].
Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, Gail MH. Excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA. 2005 Apr 20. 293(15):1861-7. [Medline].
Zheng W, McLerran DF, Rolland B, Zhang X, Inoue M, Matsuo K, et al. Association between body-mass index and risk of death in more than 1 million Asians. N Engl J Med. 2011 Feb 24. 364(8):719-29. [Medline].
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR, Flint AJ, Hannan L, MacInnis RJ, et al. Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2. 363(23):2211-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Boggs DA, Rosenberg L, Cozier YC, Wise LA, Coogan PF, Ruiz-Narvaez EA, et al. General and abdominal obesity and risk of death among black women. N Engl J Med. 2011 Sep 8. 365(10):901-8. [Medline].
Jung JH, Ahn SV, Song JM, et al. Obesity as a Risk Factor for Prostatic Enlargement: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Korea. Int Neurourol J. 2016 Dec. 20 (4):321-328. [Medline].
Stessman J, Jacobs JM, Ein-Mor E, Bursztyn M. Normal body mass index rather than obesity predicts greater mortality in elderly people: the Jerusalem longitudinal study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Dec. 57(12):2232-8. [Medline].
Tamakoshi A, Yatsuya H, Lin Y, Tamakoshi K, Kondo T, Suzuki S, et al. BMI and all-cause mortality among Japanese older adults: findings from the Japan collaborative cohort study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Feb. 18(2):362-9. [Medline].
Wadden TA, Neiberg RH, Wing RR, Clark JM, Delahanty LM, Hill JO, et al. Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011 Oct. 19(10):1987-98. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Elbel B, Gyamfi J, Kersh R. Child and adolescent fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labeling: a natural experiment. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Apr. 35(4):493-500. [Medline].
Waters E, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Hall BJ, et al. Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7. 12:CD001871. [Medline].
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Statement on the Use of A1C for the Diagnosis of Diabetes. Available at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/117853-workup. Accessed: August 6 2012.
[Guideline] Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2010 Jan. 33 Suppl 1:S62-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].
[Guideline] Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Nainggolan L. New obesity guidelines: authoritative 'roadmap' to treatment. Medscape Medical News. November 12, 2013. [Full Text].
Tucker ME. New US obesity guidelines. Treat the weight first. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/838285.
Apovian CM, Aronne LJ, Bessesen DH, et al. Pharmacological management of obesity: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Feb. 100(2):342-62. [Medline].
Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, et al. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction programmes with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: Lighten Up randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2011 Nov 3. 343:d6500. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Bray GA. Medications for weight reduction. Med Clin North Am. 2011 Sep. 95(5):989-1008. [Medline].
Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, Safford M, Knowler WC, Bertoni AG, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011 Jul. 34(7):1481-6. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Stolley MR, Fitzgibbon ML, Schiffer L, Sharp LK, Singh V, Van Horn L, et al. Obesity reduction black intervention trial (ORBIT): six-month results. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Jan. 17(1):100-6. [Medline].
Larsen TM, Dalskov SM, van Baak M, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, Pfeiffer AF, et al. Diets with high or low protein content and glycemic index for weight-loss maintenance. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 25. 363(22):2102-13. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Blüher M, Rudich A, Kloting N, et al. Two patterns of adipokine and other biomarker dynamics in a long-term weight loss intervention. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb. 35(2):342-9. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Sumithran P, Prendergast LA, Delbridge E, et al. Long-term persistence of hormonal adaptations to weight loss. N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 27. 365(17):1597-604. [Medline].
Hamdy O, Mottalib A, Morsi A, et al. Long-term effect of intensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with diabetes in real-world clinical practice: a 5-year longitudinal study. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2017. 5:e000259. [Full Text].
Maffeis C. Childhood obesity: the genetic-environmental interface. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Apr. 13(1):31-46. [Medline].
Proimos J, Sawyer S. Obesity in childhood and adolescence. Aust Fam Physician. 2000 Apr. 29(4):321-7. [Medline].
Harsha DW, Bray GA. Body composition and childhood obesity. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1996 Dec. 25(4):871-85. [Medline].
Older Adults and the Elderly. In: Human Energy Requirements: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Rome, 17-24 October 2001. Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/007/y5686e/y5686e09.htm#bm9.
Brooks M. Standard '1-MET' Value Invalid in Overweight/Obese. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/821375. Accessed: March 10, 2014.
Wilms B, Ernst B, Thurnheer M, Weisser B, Schultes B. Correction factors for the calculation of metabolic equivalents (MET) in overweight to extremely obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014 Feb 7. [Medline].
Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, Makris AP, Rosenbaum DL, Brill C, et al. Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2 years on a low-carbohydrate versus low-fat diet: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Aug 3. 153(3):147-57. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Shai I, Schwarzfuchs D, Henkin Y, Shahar DR, Witkow S, Greenberg I, et al. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 17. 359(3):229-41.
Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ. Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2005 Jan 5. 293(1):43-53. [Medline].
Very low calorie diets. Drug Ther Bull. 2012 May. 50(5):54-7. [Medline].
Van Nieuwenhove Y, Dambrauskas Z, Campillo-Soto A, van Dielen F, Wiezer R, Janssen I, et al. Preoperative very low-calorie diet and operative outcome after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a randomized multicenter study. Arch Surg. 2011 Nov. 146(11):1300-5. [Medline].
Dennis EA, Dengo AL, Comber DL, Flack KD, Savla J, Davy KP, et al. Water consumption increases weight loss during a hypocaloric diet intervention in middle-aged and older adults. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Feb. 18(2):300-7. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Dubnov-Raz G, Constantini NW, Yariv H, Nice S, Shapira N. Influence of water drinking on resting energy expenditure in overweight children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Oct. 35(10):1295-300. [Medline].
Wiesner S, Haufe S, Engeli S, Mutschler H, Haas U, Luft FC, et al. Influences of normobaric hypoxia training on physical fitness and metabolic risk markers in overweight to obese subjects. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010 Jan. 18(1):116-20. [Medline].
Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Lang W, Janney C. Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jul 28. 168(14):1550-9; discussion 1559-60. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Ballor DL, Poehlman ET. Exercise-training enhances fat-free mass preservation during diet-induced weight loss: a meta-analytical finding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1994 Jan. 18(1):35-40. [Medline].
Villareal DT, Chode S, Parimi N, Sinacore DR, Hilton T, Armamento-Villareal R, et al. Weight loss, exercise, or both and physical function in obese older adults. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 31. 364(13):1218-29. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Goodpaster BH, Delany JP, Otto AD, Kuller L, Vockley J, South-Paul JE, et al. Effects of diet and physical activity interventions on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in severely obese adults: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2010 Oct 27. 304(16):1795-802. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Hankinson AL, Daviglus ML, Bouchard C, Carnethon M, Lewis CE, Schreiner PJ, et al. Maintaining a high physical activity level over 20 years and weight gain. JAMA. 2010 Dec 15. 304(23):2603-10. [Medline].
Rejeski WJ, Brubaker PH, Goff DC Jr, Bearon LB, McClelland JW, Perri MG, et al. Translating weight loss and physical activity programs into the community to preserve mobility in older, obese adults in poor cardiovascular health. Arch Intern Med. 2011 May 23. 171(10):880-6. [Medline].
Van Dorsten B, Lindley EM. Cognitive and behavioral approaches in the treatment of obesity. Med Clin North Am. 2011 Sep. 95(5):971-88. [Medline].
Morgan PJ, Lubans DR, Callister R, Okely AD, Burrows TL, Fletcher R, et al. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' randomized controlled trial: efficacy of a healthy lifestyle program for overweight fathers and their children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Mar. 35(3):436-47. [Medline].
Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med. 2011 Jun 23. 364(25):2392-404. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, Imperial J, Schoeller DA, Penev PD. Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity. Ann Intern Med. 2010 Oct 5. 153(7):435-41. [Medline]. [Full Text].
FDA Expands Warning to Consumers About Tainted Weight Loss Pills. US Food and Drug Administration. January 8, 2009. Available at http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/newsroom/pressannouncements/2008/ucm116998.htm. Accessed: January, 2013.
United States Food and Drug Administration. BMPEA in Dietary Supplements. Available at http://www.fda.gov/Food/DietarySupplements/QADietarySupplements/ucm443790.htm. Accessed: 2015 April 27.
Heck AM, Yanovski JA, Calis KA. Orlistat, a new lipase inhibitor for the management of obesity. Pharmacotherapy. 2000 Mar. 20(3):270-9. [Medline].
US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Belviq to treat some overweight or obese adults. June 27, 2012. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm309993.htm. Accessed: July 12, 2012.
Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Lorcaserin Into Schedule IV. Drug Enforcement Administration. Available at http://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/fed_regs/rules/2012/fr1219.htm. Accessed: December 28, 2012.
Smith SR, Weissman NJ, Anderson CM, Sanchez M, Chuang E, Stubbe S, et al. Multicenter, placebo-controlled trial of lorcaserin for weight management. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 15. 363(3):245-56. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Fidler MC, Sanchez M, Raether B, Weissman NJ, Smith SR, Shanahan WR, et al. A one-year randomized trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in obese and overweight adults: the BLOSSOM trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Oct. 96(10):3067-77. [Medline].
O'Neil PM, Smith SR, Weissman NJ, Fidler MC, Sanchez M, Zhang J, et al. Randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of lorcaserin for weight loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the BLOOM-DM study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012 Jul. 20(7):1426-36. [Medline].
FDA News Release. FDA approves weight-management drug Saxenda. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm427913.htm. Accessed: December 23, 2014.
Serretti A, Mandelli L. Antidepressants and body weight: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Oct. 71(10):1259-72. [Medline].
Goldfield GS, Lorello C, Doucet E. Methylphenidate reduces energy intake and dietary fat intake in adults: a mechanism of reduced reinforcing value of food?. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug. 86(2):308-15. [Medline].
Gadde KM, Franciscy DM, Wagner HR 2nd, Krishnan KR. Zonisamide for weight loss in obese adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2003 Apr 9. 289(14):1820-5. [Medline].
Lustig RH, Hinds PS, Ringwald-Smith K, Christensen RK, Kaste SC, Schreiber RE, et al. Octreotide therapy of pediatric hypothalamic obesity: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Jun. 88(6):2586-92. [Medline].
Desilets AR, Dhakal-Karki S, Dunican KC. Role of metformin for weight management in patients without type 2 diabetes. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Jun. 42(6):817-26. [Medline].
Vilsbøll T, Christensen M, Junker AE, Knop FK, Gluud LL. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on weight loss: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2012 Jan 10. 344:d7771. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Gadde KM, Xiong GL. Bupropion for weight reduction. Expert Rev Neurother. 2007 Jan. 7(1):17-24. [Medline].
Black SC. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists and obesity. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Apr. 5(4):389-94. [Medline].
Van Gaal LF, Rissanen AM, Scheen AJ, et al. Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study. Lancet. Apr 16-22 2005. 365(9468):1389-97.
Cox SL. Rimonabant hydrochloride: an investigational agent for the management of cardiovascular risk factors. Drugs Today (Barc). 2005 Aug. 41(8):499-508. [Medline].
Fernandez JR, Allison DB. Rimonabant Sanofi-Synthélabo. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Apr. 5(4):430-5. [Medline].
Nagao T, Meguro S, Hase T, Otsuka K, Komikado M, Tokimitsu I, et al. A catechin-rich beverage improves obesity and blood glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Feb. 17(2):310-7. [Medline].
Dunican KC, Adams NM, Desilets AR. The role of pramlintide for weight loss. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Mar. 44(3):538-45. [Medline].
Batterham RL, Cohen MA, Ellis SM, Le Roux CW, Withers DJ, Frost GS, et al. Inhibition of food intake in obese subjects by peptide YY3-36. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 4. 349(10):941-8. [Medline].
Boggiano MM, Chandler PC, Oswald KD, Rodgers RJ, Blundell JE, Ishii Y. PYY3-36 as an anti-obesity drug target. Obes Rev. 2005 Nov. 6(4):307-22. [Medline].
Roth CL, Enriori PJ, Harz K, Woelfle J, Cowley MA, Reinehr T. Peptide YY is a regulator of energy homeostasis in obese children before and after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 Dec. 90(12):6386-91. [Medline].
Moon HS, Matarese G, Brennan AM, Chamberland JP, Liu X, Fiorenza CG, et al. Efficacy of metreleptin in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: cellular and molecular pathways underlying leptin tolerance. Diabetes. 2011 Jun. 60(6):1647-56. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Ravussin E, Smith SR, Mitchell JA, Shringarpure R, Shan K, Maier H, et al. Enhanced weight loss with pramlintide/metreleptin: an integrated neurohormonal approach to obesity pharmacotherapy. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009 Sep. 17(9):1736-43. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Tam CS, Lecoultre V, Ravussin E. Novel strategy for the use of leptin for obesity therapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011 Dec. 11(12):1677-85. [Medline].
Sjöström L, Peltonen M, Jacobson P, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Wedel H, et al. Bariatric surgery and long-term cardiovascular events. JAMA. 2012 Jan 4. 307(1):56-65. [Medline].
Flum DR, Belle SH, King WC, Wahed AS, Berk P, Chapman W, et al. Perioperative safety in the longitudinal assessment of bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jul 30. 361(5):445-54. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Maggard MA, Shugarman LR, Suttorp M, Maglione M, Sugerman HJ, Livingston EH, et al. Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Apr 5. 142(7):547-59. [Medline].
Tucker ME. New Bariatric Surgery Guidelines Reflect Rapidly Evolving Field. Medscape Medical News. Mar 28 2013. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/781619. Accessed: Apr 3 2013.
Fiore K. New Guidelines for Weight-Loss Surgery Upgrade Sleeve Procedure. MedPage Today. Available at http://www.medpagetoday.com/Endocrinology/Obesity/38112?utm_content=&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=DailyHeadlines&utm_source=WC&xid=NL_DHE_2013email@example.com&mu_id=5780408. Accessed: Apr 3 2013.
Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, Garvey WT, Hurley DL, McMahon MM, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Perioperative Nutritional, Metabolic, and Nonsurgical Support of the Bariatric Surgery Patient - 2013 Update: Cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Endocr Pract. 2013 Mar 25. e1-e36. [Medline].
Ashley S, Bird DL, Sugden G, Royston CM. Vertical banded gastroplasty for the treatment of morbid obesity. Br J Surg. 1993 Nov. 80(11):1421-3. [Medline].
Flickinger EG, Pories WJ, Meelheim HD, Sinar DR, Blose IL, Thomas FT. The Greenville gastric bypass. Progress report at 3 years. Ann Surg. 1984 May. 199(5):555-62. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Plecka Östlund M, Marsk R, Rasmussen F, Lagergren J, Näslund E. Morbidity and mortality before and after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity compared with the general population. Br J Surg. 2011 Jun. 98(6):811-6. [Medline].
Mingrone G, Panunzi S, De Gaetano A, Guidone C, Iaconelli A, Leccesi L, et al. Bariatric surgery versus conventional medical therapy for type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 26. 366(17):1577-85. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Søvik TT, Aasheim ET, Taha O, Engström M, Fagerland MW, Björkman S, et al. Weight loss, cardiovascular risk factors, and quality of life after gastric bypass and duodenal switch: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2011 Sep 6. 155(5):281-91. [Medline].
Hedberg J, Sundbom M. Superior weight loss and lower HbA1c 3 years after duodenal switch compared with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass--a randomized controlled trial. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2012 May-Jun. 8(3):338-43. [Medline].
Cigaina V. Gastric pacing as therapy for morbid obesity: preliminary results. Obes Surg. 2002 Apr. 12 Suppl 1:12S-16S. [Medline].
Klein S, Fontana L, Young VL, et al. Absence of an effect of liposuction on insulin action and risk factors for coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. Jun 17 2004. 350(25):2549-57.
Koch TR, Finelli FC. Postoperative metabolic and nutritional complications of bariatric surgery. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2010 Mar. 39(1):109-24. [Medline].
Abbott Laboratories agrees to withdraw its obesity drug Meridia. FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm228812.htm. Accessed: October 8, 2010.
Anderson JW, Jhaveri MA. Reductions in medications with substantial weight loss with behavioral intervention. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2010 Nov. 5(4):232-8. [Medline].
Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves weight-management drug Qsymia. Available at http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm312468.htm. Accessed: August 7, 2012.
Grudell AB, Sweetser S, Camilleri M, Eckert DJ, Vazquez-Roque MI, Carlson PJ, et al. A controlled pharmacogenetic trial of sibutramine on weight loss and body composition in obese or overweight adults. Gastroenterology. 2008 Oct. 135(4):1142-54. [Medline]. [Full Text].
James WP, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal LF, Maggioni AP, et al. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 2010 Sep 2. 363(10):905-17. [Medline].
Laidman J. Obesity Thresholds Accurately Predict Adolescent Health Risk. Medscape Medical News. Jan 29 2014. [Full Text].
Laurson KR, Welk GJ, Eisenmann JC. Diagnostic performance of BMI percentiles to identify adolescents with metabolic syndrome. Pediatrics. 2014 Feb. 133(2):e330-8. [Medline].
Makowski CT, Gwinn KM, Hurren KM. Naltrexone/bupropion: an investigational combination for weight loss and maintenance. Obes Facts. 2011. 4(6):489-94. [Medline].
Nainggolan L. Gastric band is first step surgery for morbidly obese teens. Medscape Medical News. May 29, 2014. [Full Text].
Nainggolan L. FDA Approves Bupropion/Naltrexone (Contrave) for Obesity. Medscape Medical News. Available at http://www.staging.medscape.com/viewarticle/831513. Accessed: September 14, 2014.
Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, Brethauer SA, Kirwan JP, Pothier CE, et al. Bariatric surgery versus intensive medical therapy in obese patients with diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2012 Apr 26. 366(17):1567-76. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Sjöström L, Narbro K, Sjöström CD, Karason K, Larsson B, Wedel H, et al. Effects of bariatric surgery on mortality in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 23. 357(8):741-52. [Medline].
NCD Risk Factor Collaboration. Worldwide trends in body-mass index, underweight, overweight, and obesity from 1975 to 2016: a pooled analysis of 2416 population-based measurement studies in 128.9 million children, adolescents, and adults. Lancet. 2017 Oct 10. [Full Text].
McCall B. Obesity Soars 10-Fold in Kids; With Underweight It's a 'Double Burden'. Medscape Medical News. Oct 11, 2017. [Full Text].
Schiavon CA, Bersch-Ferreira AC, Santucci EV, et al. Effects of Bariatric Surgery in Obese Patients With Hypertension: The GATEWAY Randomized Trial (Gastric Bypass to Treat Obese Patients With Steady Hypertension). Circulation. 2017 Nov 13. [Medline].
Stiles S. Bariatric Surgery Can Lead to HTN 'Remission' in Obese: GATEWAY. Medscape. 2017 Nov 13. [Full Text].
Katyal N, Bollu PC. Ventilation, Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome. 2018 Jan. [Medline]. [Full Text].
Evangelista LS, Cho WK, Kim Y. Obesity and chronic kidney disease: a population-based study among South Koreans. PLoS One. 2018. 13 (2):e0193559. [Medline].
Tester JM, Phan TT, Tucker JM, et al. Characteristics of Children 2 to 5 Years of Age With Severe Obesity. Pediatrics. 2018 Feb 27. [Medline].